Erewash Street and town gasometer.
About this image
Looking east along Erewash Street towards Midland Terrace towards the town gasometers which were situated across the railway line. The terraces provided housing for workers at Toton Railway Sidings. They have all been demolished and Asda supermarket now stands at this location. The town gasometers were previously located on the other side of Nottingham Road between Waverley Street and the railway line (on a site later used as the Gas Training Centre). Every town had a gas works and gasometers became a familiar site, using coal to produce a (toxic!) gas which was a combination of hydrogen, carbon-monoxide, methane, carbon di-oxide and nitrogen. Early gas retorts were horizontal tubes about 12 inch in diameter which were charged (filled with coal) and, having given off the gas, discharged (the coke removed) by hand through an iron door at one end called the mouthpiece to be stored in the gasometers. It was slow, dirty back breaking work. These retorts were made of iron and distorted badly with prolonged heating. Fire clay retorts with iron lids were introduced around 1822 and the through retort (charged at one end, discharged from the other) was developed by George Lowe in 1831. As the demand for gas grew in the factories and the home for heating, lighting and cooking and streets were also lit by gas lighting, so the efficiency of the methods of making it improved. Automatic stoking machines were first used in 1868 and gravity fed, inclined retorts were developed in 1885. The next major advance was the invention of the vertical retort in early 1900. Continuous vertical retorts could produce 2 1/2 times as much as the old horizontal retorts on a given land area and were cleaner and more efficient. After a century and a half of using coal, attention began to be focused on using, first oil, as the raw material for gas production, then natural gas. Natural gas offers an important benefit over town gas; it is 'clean' and burns without giving rise to pollution from smoke, soot, dust, grit and sulphur dioxide. It enabled gas users to comply with the Clean Air Act 1956. Another important advantage is that it is non-toxic because it doesn't contain carbon monoxide which in the past had been responsible for a number of deaths. In 1959 the world's largest natural gas field, some 300 miles square, was discovered in Holland. Exploration began in the North Sea and six years later in 1965, natural gas was discovered in the West Sole area of the North Sea, 40 miles offshore. This was followed a year later by the discovery of the largest North Sea field, Lehman Bank. Other gas fields followed and soon there was enough gas to supply the whole of Britain for many years. Within 18 months of the first finds natural gas was supplying 10% of Britain's needs. Within 5 years over half of those needs were supplied. Natural gas has different characteristics to town gas and this meant that all gas appliances had to be converted to use the new fuel. This led to the eventual decline of producing gas from coal, and most gas works were no longer needed.